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A photograph can be both positive and negative. Most photographs are taken with a camera, which employs a lens to focus an object's visible wavelengths (the light reflected or emitted from it) into a replica of what the human eye would see on a light-sensitive surface.

Sir John Herschel invented the term "photograph" in 1839, based on the Greek words "phos" (light) and "graphê" (drawing) - hence "drawing with light."

In response to the question, "What is Enlightenment?" by the French philosopher René Descartes in 1784, Immanuel Kant said, "Enlightenment is man's escape from his self-incurred immaturity." This was fifty years before Photography was made available to the general public. In the wake of Feudalism's thousand-year decline, Kant wrote this to explain the new global order he saw forming, one founded on reason rather than faith, democracy rather than monarchy, and commerce rather than barter.

The Enlightenment was a radical departure from the mediaeval period and an emphatic shift towards modern ideals of reason, logic, and rationality. "Have the bravery to apply your understanding!" summed up this break with tradition and the beginning of a new era of science, capitalism, and democracy. The final rupture with the mediaeval iconography of saints and cherubs was reinforced with the invention of Photography, which resulted from this scientific revolution.

Because it is a byproduct of the same industrial processes that replaced human and animal muscle with motors and pistons, accelerated movement to ultrasonic speeds, and exchanged craftsmanship for mass-production, Photography is the most appropriate visual form to reflect the changing face of society as it was reshaped by industrialisation.

As the visual figuration of a social order that used representation and subjectivity as the bedrock of its scientific, political, and commercial activities, Photography arose from this confluence of bodies, energies, and machines. The same reasoning that says paper money is equivalent to gold bullion also says that a cat's picture accurately represents a real cat (gold standard). Just like an MP speaks for his or her constituents, H2O stands in for water.

In the twenty-first century, however, the "photographic camera" has already reached the end of its useful life in the representational world order established by Newton's laws of motion, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, and parliamentary (representative) democracy. There may be remnants of this type of Photography that have survived, but they are in a very advanced condition of decay, stuck in a limbo while being reshaped by a new set of forces. Another kind of machine has emerged in the 'Age of Information,' one that mimics not the human body but the brain's activities and functions.

The new machines that we refer to as 'computers' do not operate within the categories of human reason, such as, for example, dialectics, subjectivity, or representation, much like how during the previous 'Industrial Age,' machines replaced physical labour not by copying animal locomotion (aeroplanes don't flap their wings like birds) but by utilising different sources of energy (petroleum) and other processes (internal combustion).

Newton's rules are still valid, but quantum physics has shown that they only apply to a very specific domain of reality. While quantitative easing did not eliminate paper currency, it did eliminate its potential value as a representation of gold bullion or any other tangible asset.

Repugnant democracies did not vanish during the Arab Spring. Computers did not eradicate reason and representation but rather enriched them with fuzzy logic, undecidability, artificial intelligence, and the paradoxes of Turing machines. Nonetheless, it revealed a link between democratic voting and fundamentalism.

The visual landscape is undergoing a sea change in the era of artificial intelligence, algorithmic processing, and massive computational speeds. Foucault showed that the industrial age was an age of universal visibility by comparing the visual order of perspective in four institutions: the school, the industry, the hospital, and the barracks.

Susan Sontag observed that Photography played a distinct role in this optical regime: "cameras define reality in the two ways fundamental to the operation of a sophisticated industrial society: as a spectacle (for the masses) and as an object of surveillance" (Sontag, p.

To paraphrase Karl Marx, the only thing that remained unrepresentable to Western eyes was "the hidden home of production," or the secret to turning a profit. Because the mechanism that creates money is also the process by which Photography is made—technology, mass delusion, replication, and limitless exchange—Photography was unable to shine the purifying power of sunlight on this secret and expose it for what it is.

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Let's pretend that the primary concern of Photography is the depiction of physical objects in their spatial context. The importance of velocity, acceleration, dissemination, and self-replication in today's environment has surpassed the aesthetic value of physical space, rendering it irrelevant.

Visual surveillance is being replaced by predictive policing, manufacturing processes by trading algorithms, armies by remote-controlled killer robots, and perspectival geometry by the flat topology of the computer screen as the industrial age comes to an end.

These shifts do not imply that what we see immediately before our eyes suddenly becomes irrelevant; rather, they suggest that many more things of significance lie beyond the average human's perception range. What happens to Photography when a control moves from the optical nerve to the fiber-optic cable? What happens to public space when it is unseen but persistently transformed by global capital into privately owned space with public access? When nationhood, citizenship, and individualism are all under attack from transnational businesses.

Not much has changed the unfortunate answer. Going to a graduating photography show recently reinforced the belief that Photography remains the most widely recognised form of artistic expression. With confidence, Photography's business card still boasts that it can capture any facet of reality and offer it to the viewer as an image. Is there anything a picture can't show? How about a comet's exterior? Check. Reflection of a ghostly white behind in the restroom mirror, anyone? Check. Urine pooling under a hospital bed in a slum? Check. Young adults sitting on the beach and gazing absently? Do a treble take!

Bus shelters, magazines, mobile phones, notice boards, tablets, and packages of cat food all bombard us with the same stock photos to the point that it's difficult to tell the difference between a museum exhibit and a Primark window display. First impressions can be deceiving, and the wide variety of topics, events, and scenarios that Photography can cover may lead you to believe that its applicability is limitless and its reach is global.

These seemingly Technicolour riches, however, have a shadowy side best summarised by referencing Henry Ford's quip that "you can have the Ford T in any colour, as long as it's black." As long as the photograph represents a representation of something, it can be of any device, be about any subject, and be of any size.

In a post-Fordist society, the processes that (re)produce and circulate the thing are now where the political agency and cultural importance lies, not the object itself, no matter how eye-catching it may be. However, unlike physical goods, methods are typically not brought to the public's attention. In a world where speed, acceleration, dissemination, and self-replication acquire a significance that overshadows the visual look of areas, We believe that Photography is losing its relevance if its primary interest is with representations of objects in space.

Photography in the 20th century appeared on the printed page, its perspectival organisation of elements matching the hierarchical organisation of a centrally regulated society, with the observer's subjectivity serving as its focal point. This setup is as antiquated in the modern era as hand-built furniture was during the industrial revolution. Besides museums and nostalgic photo stores, none else uses photographic prints anymore. In its place is a bright screen, one side of which is turned towards the human and bathes her in blue light, while the other is plugged into an unimaginably large stream of data, which is constantly being worked and reworked by algorithms written and rewritten by invisible and unknown puppet masters – our absolute rulers.

From time to time, these algorithms choose individual data packages from this continuous flow and transform them into what we would traditionally refer to as a photograph. However, this similarity is merely skin deep. Index, Punctum, Document, and Representation, the four horsemen of the photographic apocalypse, are no more capable of explaining this procedure than is a printed page describing how a computer screen works. The point is not to imply that the algorithmic image lacks substance or humanity but rather to argue that both must be reevaluated in Light of these bio-techno-political shifts.

Still, there is an image, and this image may be of anything from a cat to a politician to a beheading, and it could still be fascinating, as we know many photographs to be. The word "photography" today is not another visual representation but an immersive economy that offers an entirely new way to inhabit materiality and its relation to bodies, machines, and brains. This fascination appears to be Photography's defining quality in a meta-critical sense, beyond how we usually consider and criticise ideas. Johnny Golding gave this revised materiality the name "Ana-materialism". It's the present moment, or 'The Now,' as some could say.

The world does not precede the image, nor is it generated by the concept, within this fascinating "always on" and "everywhere at the same time" ana-materiality. Instead, Photography represents a new level of awareness, one in which novel associations between space and time give rise to novel types of cognition, play, art, and agency.

Therefore, it would be premature to write out Photography as a relic of the industrial era. More than anything else, Photography—the visual embodiment of the algorithm—is changing the way we see the world. In certain cases, the photographs produced by this procedure provide an insight into its inner workings. These pictures are merely the debris left behind by a crushing force that follows its internal logic, like the pebbles tossed about by a crashing wave. Not to worry about trying to decipher hidden meaning in the forms these pebbles make; mastering the art of riding this swell is the more pressing concern. "There is no need for fear or hope, simply to hunt for new weapons," Gilles Deleuze once said.

This new era, which we call the 21st century, is typified by a persistent reshaping of visual forms from data. The black-framed prints, which are the "coffins" of Photography, have little in common. Neither the 'eye level' placement of images on walls, which promotes the rhetorical tropes of perspectival painting inherited from the Renaissance, nor the sixty inches from the floor to the centre of the image' norm that still passes for curation in some circles would yield the desired results.

And Photography in the twenty-first century has nothing in common with the fake moralism of the post-colonial record, which uses the same symbolic paradigm that enabled colonisation. In a nutshell, twenty-first-century photography is not about depicting the world as it is but rather about investigating the labour practices—mass manufacturing, calculation, self-replication, and pattern recognition—that shape the world. It teaches us that the "actual world" is nothing more than a collection of bits of matter, DNA, subatomic particles, and computer code, all resulting from a chaotic and random conflation.

Photography exemplifies how chance encounters between these forces can result in the fleeting yet meaningful assemblies we refer to as "images." The pursuit of understanding what constitutes an image has revitalised Photography in the twenty-first century, making it more than just a visual feast for the eyes. Therefore, Photography is a crucial artistic endeavour in the modern day.

Types Of Photography:


A two-stage chemical process creates traditional, non-digital images: first, a light-sensitive film takes a negative image (with colours and lights/darks inverted). Simply by inverting the negative onto photographic paper, a positive copy of the original image can be created (printing).


As digital Photography has been more widely used, so too have digital printing. Such prints are manufactured from digital image files of the JPEG, TIFF, or RAW variety. These can then be produced using any number of different methods, from inkjets to lasers to thermal printers. There is a trend towards using the term "giclée" to describe inkjet prints.

Landscape Photography

Let's say you're an avid photographer who frequently stops to take in the sights and captures breathtaking images of the world around them. If so, you're probably interested in what's known as landscape photography.

Aerial Photography

Aerial Photography refers to any method of taking images that places the photographer at a greater distance from the subject. These images allow a more comprehensive examination of the topic and its setting.

Sports / Action Photography

This subset of Photography focuses on freezing action at a pivotal time during sporting events. One of the most challenging subgenres of Photography to master is sports photography. It takes experience using the various tools in addition to practising.

Portrait Photography

Portraiture can be traced back to the earliest days of Photography. Family members, friends, and even pets might be in the crosshairs. This style of Photography, often known as portraiture, is extremely common.

Architectural Photography

Taking photographs of buildings, homes, and other structures from a variety of perspectives is the focus of architectural Photography. One of the main goals of architectural Photography is to impress potential purchasers.

Wedding Photography/Event Photography

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Professional photographers often get their start by shooting weddings and other events. Although this does not imply that no expertise is required to be a successful photographer. Any photographer who wants to dabble in this field needs to be a portraiture pro with superb editing chops. Photographers are in higher demand for weddings and other special events.

Fashion Photography

Fashion photography features models wearing and accessorising with the latest in high-end clothing, footwear, and accessories. Advertising agencies and fashion publications are this kind of photography's primary clients.

Macro Photography

Macro Photography is a subgenre of Photography in which the subject is taken from an extreme close-up. Insects, flowers, and woven materials like sweaters and baskets provide fascinating macro photography subjects.

Baby Photography/Family Photography

Photographs of newborns and their families are also quite popular. When a family is blessed with a new baby, they often decide to have family portraits taken. This style of Photography is excellent for capturing a newborn baby and their family's reactions. In this kind of Photography, the entire family gathers together to immortalise a single, special moment.

Wildlife Photography

Wildlife photography refers to a specific type of nature photography that focuses on wild creatures in their natural environments. In addition to photographing wildlife, several photographers specialise in documenting animal behaviour in its natural habitat.

Photographs like these are typically taken for publication or display purposes. This genre of Photography is widely practised today. Having the patience to wait for the perfect shot is just as important as having a high-quality camera, a variety of lenses, and a powerful floodlight.

FAQs About Photography

Photography, like theatre, painting, and sculpture, is a medium of self-expression used to elicit an emotion or tell a narrative. For example, someone who snaps pictures while on vacation narrates the story of their travels and which sites inspired them so much that they desired a visual recollection of the region.

It is used in various disciplines of research, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, in addition to its more direct applications in art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobbies, and mass communication.

What Is The Difference Between Photography And Photojournalism?

The act or practice of making photographs is known as Photography. On the other hand, photojournalism is the practice of documenting news events visually. But what, exactly, differentiates the two?

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There is a square-rectangular link between Photography and photojournalism. Photojournalism is Photography, but Photography is not always photojournalism.

Photography is a wonderful art form because it allows the creator complete creative freedom over the final product. While a camera transmits the image directly in front of it, photographers can stage photos and control the situation. When working with photographs, many creatives also use photo editing software like Photoshop to make adjustments to the image's realism. When it comes to photography, you're free to do whatever you want with your work. However, this is not true with photojournalism.

When it comes to photojournalism, it takes more than just a good eye to succeed. They need to depict a scene or event realistically while also being visually interesting. Besides, the photographer must be swift and brave and willing to push boundaries to acquire the right shot.

The article offers a list of attributes that photojournalists need to have to make it in their trade. The jobs that they encounter are often risky and fast-paced. Photojournalists routinely face the unknown in pursuit of an image that will faithfully tell a narrative and send a message of truth. At the same time, some photographers will put themselves in dangerous situations to get the perfect shot.

Compared to photojournalism's difficulty, none of the many subgenres of Photography even comes close.


Working as a wedding photographer is an ongoing educational experience that can put your patience and ingenuity to the ultimate test, particularly when dealing with demanding clientele who have doubts about your abilities. By using the tips above, you should continue to be creative and artistic at all weddings while developing a better fruitful relationship with clients.

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